Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Buying Decisions of ‘Consumers’ on the Use of Microsoft

â€Å"The Buying Decisions of ‘Consumers’ On the Use of Microsoft or Apple Products† Submitted By: SANUSI SANI BUHARI Student No: 200922R7018 The Dissertation has been submitted to the Skyline University College In partial Fulfillment of the Degree: Bachelor of Business Administration (International Business) December-2012 Acknowledgement The writing of this dissertation has been one of the most significant academic challenges I have ever had to face. Without the support, patience and guidance of the following people, this study would not have been completed.It is to them that I owe my deepest gratitude. * Dr. Rashad Mohammed Al Saed, who undertook to act as my supervisor despite his many other academic and professional commitments. His wisdom, knowledge and commitment to the highest standards inspired and motivated me. * My friends and whoever directly or indirectly helped me to during the course of the dissertation. * The authors of the various books and web sit es as well as the facilities and university library that helped me gain various information for this dissertation. AbstractThis research paper describes the buying decisions of ‘consumers’, as to whether they prefer Microsoft or Apple products. People have different choice according to needs. Business organizations and telecommunication sectors judge product on usability. Data analysis suggests many important elements impact the buying decision of an individual or any specific company. Data analysis also suggests Microsoft and Apple continue to push the envelope when it comes to developing software and hardware. The main objective of this research is- which product do people prefer?To find answers to the research questions of this research, data analysis and descriptive study has been used, because it involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. This method is used to obtain a general overview of the subject, and answers who, what, and why of the study. The two giants pride themselves for producing cutting edge consumer and business products, and are leading the developments in software and hardware. But what about their websites how do they both compare, and more important, which one is better and more usable?This study will help reader to find all this answer. Chapter No. | Particulars| Pg No. | 1| Introduction * Aims of Independent Study * Objectives| 6-7| 2| Literature Review| 8-29| 3| Research Methodology| 30-32| | * Research Design| 31| | * Research Approach| 31| | * Research Instrument| 32| | * Sampling Design| 32| 4| Data Analysis| 33-37| 5| Conclusion| 38-40| | Bibliography | 41-42| | Appendixes | 43-46| Aims of the Study Technology has slowly started to rule our lives. No matter where we are, we have access to some sort of technological appliance such as cell phones, computers or televisions.Anything one could think of that might, in even the slightest way, make our lives easier is now av ailable. So many different types of devices have been conceived and developed that is has become a complicated and confusing decision when trying to choose the right product. Computers and other forms of technology impact our lives daily. We encounter computers in stores, restaurants, and other retail establishments. We use computers and the Internet regularly to obtain information, experience online entertainment, buy product and services as well as communicating with others.Most of us carry a computer or a mobile phone with us at all times so we can remain in touch with others on a continual basis and can access internet information by the touch of a button. Businesses use computers to keep track of bank transactions, inventories, sales, credit card purchases and also provide business executives up to date information to make important decisions. Government’s use computers to support our nation’s defense system, for space exploration, for storing and organizing vital information of citizens, and other important tasks. Computers are used everywhere, and is a vital tool in one’s life.When you turn to your computer, it’s nice to think you’re in control. There’s the trusty computer mouse, which you can move anywhere on the screen, summoning up your music library or the internet browser by one click. Although it’s easy to feel like the director in front of your own desktop or laptop, there’s a lot going on inside, and the real man behind all these operations is the ‘Operating System’. The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible but predictable way.Most desktop or laptop PCs come pre-loaded with Microsoft Windows. Macintosh computers come pre-loaded with Mac OS X. The operating system (OS) is the first thing loaded onto the computer. Without the operating system, a computer is useless. When it comes to co mputer technology, the two biggest giants are ‘Microsoft’ and ‘Apple’. Microsoft and Apple are by and large the biggest producers in cutting edge consumer and business products. Between the two companies, they continue to push the envelope when it comes to developing software and hardware.Question is, which do people prefer? Prior to this, I’ve decided to base my study on ‘†¦ The buying decisions of consumers’, as to whether they prefer Microsoft or Apple products†¦ ’ Research Objectives Research Objectives ascertains specific points that may aid in gathering information related to the main objective. The purpose of this research will be: * To know the factors that affect the buying decisions of customers * To determine the products and services provided to customers Literature ReviewAs stated by (Allan 2001), Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions. While jointly developing a new Operating System (OS), working alongside IBM, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows. On February 26th 1986, moved its headquarters to Redmond, and decided to make the company go public.Microsoft worked closely with Apple during the development of Apple's Macintosh computer, which was introduced in 1984. Revolutionary in its design, the Mac featured a graphical user interface based on icons rather than the typed commands used by the IBM PC, making its programs simple to use and easy to learn, even by computer novices. ( Iceboat, Daniel, and Susan L. Knepper 1991 p. 304) Apple INC was established on April 1, 1976 in Cupertino, California, and incorporated January 3, 1977; the company was previously named Apple Computer, Inc. for its first 30 years, but removed the word â€Å"Computer† on January 9, 2007, to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. (Price 1987) On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer important of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months.Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software. On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California. Later on July 9 they bought Spruce Technologies, a DVD authoring company. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful  Ã¢â‚¬â€ over 100 million units were sold within six years. In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for $0. 99 a song and combination with the iPod.The service quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008. It can understandably be said that when it comes to computer technology, the two biggest names are ‘Microsoft’ and ‘Apple’. (Suhail 2009) It success has become so immense that a customer’s choice can either be one of the two. Other competitors are too far off, but what do these two giants give in return to society? To most people, Microsoft represents computing. Those with a dynamic interest in technology usually believe that Microsoft Windows is the computer.This kind of brand association you won’t see in other companies, which makes it a very powerful source in the world of technology. Apple computers have grown very popular in the last few years, and its simplicity and user-friendly attributes is what keeps customers capti vated. Historically, Microsoft began the personal computer revolution with their Windows Operating System, which offered people a different platform for their computer needs. Apple also introduced, with their own line of Macintosh computers and devices, though it did have it ups and downs.Microsoft followed a general policy by marketing their computers with non-expensive hardware and software parts which allowed every house to have a PC (personal computer). People can afford their computers with no restrictions on the type of hardware. Apple had a different mind frame whereby they went for exclusivity and decided to sell their products at a much higher price than Microsoft PC’s. Its elite hardware and software is what makes it more expensive. (Admin 2010) Although where Apple has the upper hand over Microsoft is related to security. Apple Mac computers are generally more secure because of its OSX operating system. Suhail 2009) It has more protection built in against malware a nd viruses. Customers want to feel comfortable and safe, knowing that the product they are purchasing is protected against threat at all times. Windows (operating system of Microsoft) is more prone to malware and viruses, and requires expensive protection software to make the PC more secure. Another advantage of Apple computers is they are more efficient when it comes to graphics acceleration and games. Microsoft has problems with that. If one would buy a Microsoft based PC, they would need to spend an additional amount to handle graphics of that scale.On the other hand, Microsoft is committed in making its products and services easier for everyone to use. The Windows operating system has many in-built accessibility features that are useful for individuals who have difficulty in typing, using the mouse, seeing or hearing difficulties. Microsoft also produces other computer hardware’s such as Xbox, Zune, Xbox 360 and MSN TV. (MSJ 1986) Apple also offers a wide variety of produ cts such as the iPhone, iPod, Apple TV and the newly introduced iPad. Factors affecting buying decision HomepageThe homepage is one of the most important pages of the whole site because it’s the first, and in many cases the only chance you get to impress the visitor enough to keep them browsing. You’ve got a few seconds to convince them that the site has enough value for them to keep using it, because if it doesn’t, the visitors will leave. Apple’s approach to the homepage has been consistent throughout all the years that the site has been running. They use this page as a kind of advertising board that always shows a big ad of their latest product, followed by 3 other ads to another 3 products or news that is important at the moment.If you’re not interested in any of the 4 suggested items, you can use the large navigation bar at the top, which is split into their core businesses: Mac, iPod and iPhone, followed by a couple of other important links, such as the online store and support pages. The navigation bar also incorporates a search field. (Dmitry Fadeyev) One other thing to note is the lack of content. You’re not distracted by sidebars, notices or extra navigation items — there are only a few items on the page, focusing your attention and making the decision of where to go next easier. Microsoft has a different approach to their homepage.Firstly, they feature a similar style of ad at the top, designed to be attention grabbing. These are large images, but only one out of 3 ads is shown at a time — you have to hover over the other two to expand them. This focuses attention, but may potentially weaken the effectiveness of the two hidden ads since the visitor has to work to see them right at the top of the page is the navigation, together with search. Flow All of the content of Microsoft is extremely monotonous, especially the â€Å"Learn More† box with a list of 8 links. The dry presentation gives the user less incentive to click around.Some Microsoft sites use better layout to direct the flow of attention, but they generally all suffer from the same illness: too much content. When you present the user with too many choices, you make them work — they have to think about what they want and they have to process more information. By reducing choice, Apple directs the users through a more carefully designed funnel, which generally delivers a better experience. (Dmitry Fadeyev) Navigation Apple’s website has a large navigation bar at the top, which remains there consistently whichever section of the site you go to.The options available show the main sections split by its lines of business as well as a couple of essentials, such as support and the store. The bar also integrates search and branding as the home button displays the Apple logo instead of a label. Any extra sub-navigation is located on individual site pages and is placed within the context of that page, w hether on a sidebar, or as a horizontal bar at the top. Microsoft has a similar navigation bar on the homepage, but that navigation bar is not consistent across the site. Actually, all of the sub-pages tend to use their own navigation bar, in style and in content.The homepage navigation thus acts as a site map to the rest of the Microsoft website sections. In a lot of the navigation bars, including the one on the homepage, Microsoft uses drop-down menus — unlike Apple. They don’t just use drop-down menus — they use huge drop-down menus. In some cases, the menu even has a scrollbar (in Firefox): Is this good or bad? In a recent Alertbox entry, Jakob Nielsen, a well known usability guru, has written that mega drop-down menus can work. They work because they present a lot of choices in groups, so they allow for easier scanning as you can jump to the group that you want and scan the items inside them.You have to get certain things right though, like the order of the groups and only mentioning each element once, for them to work well. In this case, it makes sense for Microsoft to go the route of the drop-down menus, but feel that they may have gone a little too far. For example, some options point to the same thing, like the ‘Office’ drop down and ‘Office’ option in the ‘All Products’ drop down. The drop-down also blocks the content below, so if you accidentally moused over the menu, you have to mouse off from it again to get to the content below — all the while being careful not to hover over other items.There are also a lot of options under each group — sometimes showing about 13 items, which makes processing the options much more difficult. Also, the inconsistency of navigation across the different sections makes it much harder to jump from one area of the site to another, e. g from the Office site to the Xbox site. (Dmitry Fadeyev) Readability Because most of the content on the sites is t ext, it’s vital to ensure that everything is readable and legible. Here are the main things to consider when working on readability of your site’s content: * Make the text large enough so that it’s easy to see and read. Ensure that there is enough contrast between the text and background. * Provide enough white space around the text to keep other content and graphics from distracting the reader. * Provide plenty of headings or highlighted/bold text to allow users to quickly scan the content for key information. * Add images and icons to make it easier to focus on individual sections of the text, i. e. product or feature descriptions. * Keep the text short and to the point. Apple does a great job of keeping everything easy to read.The text is generally small, but never too small so as to be a problem. Headings are set in heavier type and stand out, allowing you to quickly get the gist of each section. Apple also makes heavy use of white space to separate everythi ng apart and adds images to make each text blurb more interesting. It follows the general usability guidelines by breaking things down into small bite size pieces of text that are easy to digest. It looks a lot busier than the Apple site because there is more content on one page and there are many different treatments for headings and highlighted words. Dmitry Fadeyev) Too much variety causes visual chaos on the page, with each different colored or bold item competing for your attention. In this case, the page really needs to be simplified to make it easier for the viewer to process. Search Apple’s search is integrated into the navigation bar. When you type something in the search box you actually get live search results with AJAX, by way of a little box which pops up, showing you the results as you type. It’s very well done — there is no lag when typing, the results are grouped in categories and are fetched very quickly, usually before you finish typing your fu ll query.If you want to see more results you can just hit Enter when you’ve finished typing and you’ll be taken to the standard search results page. It’s very clean and organized by categories. You can drill the results further down by category, selectable from the menu on the right. It’s functional and clean, and works well when you’re trying to find any products that they sell. Aesthetics Apple’s website aesthetics closely mirrors that of its product line. The navigation bar looks like it’s crafted out of aluminium and features gentle gradients and indented text. There are also plenty of reflections and minimalist design elements.Apple has always worked on unifying the look and feel of its interface across its entire product line, from the hardware to software, and their website is no exception. Do aesthetics have anything to do with usability? Actually, they do. Research shows that people perceive better looking interfaces as more usable. The site follows a faint Windows theme with the light blue clouds, but there is little else to say that this is a page for Internet Explorer or Windows. The look and feel is very generic and doesn’t do enough to differentiate itself or build a coherent brand.The designs are overall pretty good, but pretty good just isn’t enough. There are plenty of inconsistencies and a lack of polish, which puts Apple ahead in this area. Consistency Consistency is important because it allows you to develop usage patterns. This basically means that if your site has a consistent interface throughout, your visitors will quickly learn how it works and will be able to use this knowledge in any of the new pages that they visit, since they’ll all be using the same, or very similar, interface. Apple does a great job of keeping the interface consistent.All of the product pages feature very similar aesthetics and are structured in the same way. The whole site looks and feels the same throughout and the global navigation bar at the top is always there, on every page. This means that the entire experience is very unified and coherent — you know you’re on the same website wherever you go. Could you tell that this is a Microsoft page if you took away their logo? Custom graphics, styles and colour palettes across all the Microsoft sections help little to maintain a coherent brand image on the web. Microsoft really struggles here.There are many different sections across Microsoft. com and they all feature their own look and feel, including their own navigation. So once you go to a section on their site, be it the Microsoft store, the Office site, or the Security pages, they will all look and feel like separate websites. What’s worse, the global navigation bar is also gone, meaning that you have to go back to the homepage, or the site map, to see an overview of all of their sites. It’s really an ecosystem of websites hosted under the sa me domain and therefore it doesn’t get the benefit of consistency that Apple has.The brand image is also terribly fragmented making it impossible to define what a Microsoft site looks like. (Dmitry Fadeyev) Marketing Nobody will argue that Apple is the kind of viral marketing. You might find some PC ads/commercials on local magazines and newspapers, but you will not find great â€Å"Mac vs PC† / â€Å"Get a Mac† / â€Å"Buy a Mac† / â€Å"Hello, I am a Mac, and I am a PC† commercials like Apple produces. Security When it comes to Mac vs. PC security concerns, many experts think that Windows has caught up with Apple.Before Microsoft Windows 7, we have all heard that Windows operating system is a targeted platform for malicious attacks. Of course it is true, but the question is. Does the operating system has the right tools to defend itself? With Mac computers, you won't need to worry about viruses as you do in Windows operating system. The real prob lem is not only about viruses, but about security breaches that allow hackers to penetrate into your computer, and steal your valuable art works, photographs and important (and sometimes secret) media assets.It was proven that both Windows 7 and Mac OS X Snow Leopard have their own glitches. DailyTech. com posted an article, saying that one prominent Mac hacker has pointed out that Mac OS X Snow Leopard is less secured than Microsoft Windows 7 OS. Well, if a Celeb hacker says so, we should probably take it pretty seriously. So it seems, at least when making a business decision, that you shouldn't pick a Macintosh over a PC, just because people are telling you that Macintosh doesn't have viruses, or they are more secure. Apple OS X Snow Leopard is based on the UNIX core.That fact alone doesn't make it more secure than Windows 7 as you can see. We just couldn't ignore the fact that viruses are real pain in the axe. As a power PC user, with all those pop-out windows saying â€Å"You h ave been infected with a Virus†¦ † I would probably be very happy knowing that I can work quietly, without worrying about viruses and all that crux horrors that the Internet brings with it. You just can't blame Windows operating system for being more popular. Financial Analysis It's important to step back and examine just how close each of these companies really are in terms of revenue and earnings.Analysts polled by Thomson Reuters expect Apple to report approximately $2. 85 billion in net income ($3. 07 in EPS) on about $14. 62 billion in revenue when it releases its results. Yet, it's well known that Apple regularly beats consensus estimates by quite a large margin and that actual results will come in well above the consensus. Just last quarter, Apple not only beat revenue estimates by over $1 billion, but it annihilated EPS estimates by reporting $0. 88 above the $2. 45 consensus – a 36% beat.In fact, Apple has regularly beaten consensus estimates by well over 35% each quarter over the past year. (Andy M. Zaky) Financial Alchemist's Turley Muller, who is currently the most accurate analyst on Apple, offers a more realistic view of the company. Muller believes that Apple will report about $3. 1 billion in net income on ($3. 35 in EPS) on $15. 15 billion in revenue. And while I think Muller has left some room for upside surprise, it's clearly best to use his numbers rather than the consensus as a measure of comparison. Microsoft, on the other hand, is expected to earn $4. billion in net income ($0. 46 in EPS) on $15. 26 billion in revenue when it releases its results – just a hair above Muller's revenue estimates for Apple. And while Microsoft regularly reports upside surprises itself, the gap between consensus estimates and Microsoft's actual results is nowhere near as wide as it is with Apple's results. Thus, if Apple reports at the higher end of Muller's estimates, and if Microsoft reports closer to the consensus, it's quite possi ble that Apple might have a shot to beat Microsoft in revenue for the first time in its history this quarter.The chart (Appendix 2(A) details a quarterly revenue comparison of Apple and Microsoft over the past few years. As one can see from the chart, Apple is within striking distance of surpassing Microsoft's quarterly revenue. Since Microsoft and Apple are on a different fiscal year, the chart realigns their results based on the calendar year. (Andy M. Zaky) So the big story in tech earnings is whether history will be made in the decades-long battle between Apple and Microsoft, or whether Microsoft will postpone the inevitable and maintain its dominance over Apple for at least one more quarter.Even if Apple doesn't beat Microsoft in sales this quarter, it will almost certainly do so next quarter and by quite a large margin. For the September quarter, analysts expect Apple to generate approximately $16. 81 billion in revenue compared to a projected $15. 16 billion in revenue for Mi crosoft. So even conservative estimates, which have yet to be adjusted to account for iPad sales, already put Apple ahead of Microsoft by nearly $1. 2 billion next quarter. My estimates put Apple ahead by $3. 2 billion as I expect Apple to record nearly $18. 9 billion in revenue.What's even more surprising is that Apple will likely far surpass Microsoft in revenue for the entire 2012 fiscal year (Appendix 2(B). I'm looking for Apple to record $81. 6 billion in revenue, well above the $70 billion I'm expecting out of Microsoft for the year. You can view my track record on Apple at Philip Elmer-DeWitt's column Apple 2. 0. Even the analyst consensus puts Apple well ahead of Microsoft next year, with revenue estimates of $72. 6 billion (AAPL) versus $67 billion (MSFT). The chart below compares Apple and Microsoft's annual fiscal revenue for the past several years.While quarterly data must be compared on the calendar year to show a side by side comparison over a particular 3-month period , yearly data can be analyzed on the fiscal year. And, what about other metrics? Net income growth, total net income, total net cash, cash flow, book value, total assets and the economic sensitivity of each company's primary operations are just a few of the other key factors to consider when comparing the two companies. While Apple will surpass Microsoft in revenue in the near future, that doesn't necessarily mean that Apple automatically deserves a larger market capitalization.But it does appear that Apple will not only record more revenue than Microsoft, it will also eventually (within the next few years) earn more in net income, generate a larger amount of cash, and outpace Microsoft in terms of growth in net income and revenue. The earnings beat won't come easy for Apple. Due to Microsoft's extraordinarily high operating margin, the only way Apple will beat Microsoft in earnings is by simply outpacing it in sales. Since Microsoft pushes more of its revenue to the bottom line, Ap ple will have to significantly outpace Microsoft in revenue to win on the net income front.The chart below compares Apple and Microsoft's net income for the last several fiscal years (Appendix 2(C). Though these two companies no longer really operate in the same space as they once did with Apple turning its focus on the consumer and Microsoft on enterprise spending, both companies are dominating their respective industries. Update 7/20: As expected, Apple has once again crushed the consensus estimates on the top line, beating analyst revenue expectations by over well $1 billion when it reported $15. 7 billion in revenue Tuesday afternoon. In fact, Apple even surpassed my lofty expectations of $15. billion by $100 million in sales. Unless Microsoft far surpasses analyst expectations of $15. 24 billion in revenue, it appears that Apple has already won the race. Microsoft primarily makes its profits from business to business, which mainly consists of selling licenses to its operating s ystem to computer manufacturers and office suites for enterprises. That’s not to say that they don’t sell to consumers — they do, and they have consumer only product lines as well, such as the Xbox gaming console, and of course home users also buy Windows and Office.This means that their business targets pretty much everyone, from home computer owners to developers and enterprises; which in turn stretches the purpose of their website to try and serve everyone. On the other hand, Apple is primarily a consumer company, and makes most of its profit selling hardware, like its iPod music players and Mac computers. This makes the target of Apple’s site much clearer — marketing, selling and providing support for its products to consumers.They don’t have to worry about selling licenses to manufacturers because they’re the only manufacturer, so the key purpose of the website would be to advertise and promote their multiple product lines, as we ll as selling them through their online store. (Andy M. Zaky) Cost Analysis Other factor that affects buying decision is cost. People have been arguing online about how much more expensive Macs are than PCs — or not — for more than a decade (and in print for years before that). These discussions usually involve some hard facts but also some persistent myths. As a longtime Windows guy who has recently migrated to the Mac, I think I'm in a retty good position to try and sort out reality from fiction. Let's take a look at what you can really get for your money these days. Hardware For those of you who are left, what I have found in my research is that neither side has a lock on good value. If you start with Apple's relatively short list of SKUs (three or four model variations for each of its lines, such as MacBook Pro, MacBook, and iMac) and then look for comparable Windows machines, you'll find that Apple bests the competition in some ways and not in others, but the pric ing, overall, is surprisingly on par.Only a few years ago, it seemed like a no-brainer that Windows hardware was much cheaper. But if you're talking name-brand hardware, that's just no longer the case. On the other hand, if you search the Windows side first, you'll quickly discover machines that — in features and price — fit in between the Mac SKUs. And in those niches, they represent very good values. So there's one answer to the question of whether Macs or Windows represent a better value: If one of those â€Å"in between† PCs suits your needs best, you'd be paying an unnecessary premium to get a Mac instead.Let's look at some hard numbers. I started my research with top-of-the-line notebooks — I spent an hour on Dell's site trying to find the cheapest notebook that offered everything Apple's $2,799 MacBook Pro 17 provides. That includes: * Glossy 17-in. screen with 1,680-by-1,050-pixel resolution (optional 1,920-by-1,200 resolution for $100 more) * 2. 4-GHz Core 2 Duo processor * 2GB of RAM (upgradeable to 4GB) * 256MB Nvidia GeForce 8600M GT video * 160GB 5,400-rpm SATA hard drive * 8x SuperDrive (DVD+R DL/DVD ±RW/CD-RW) Gigabit Ethernet port * 54Mbps a/b/g/Draft n Wi-Fi * Bluetooth 2. 0+EDR, Express Card/34 card slot * Three USB ports * One FireWire 800 port * One FireWire 400 port * DVI port * Built-in insight video camera * One-year warranty (upgradeable to three years) I continued my comparisons with a visit to Circuit City last weekend to take a look at high-end 17-in. notebook PCs. Like Dell, Sony has one with every conceivable bell and whistle selling for more than $3,000 — the Vaio VGN-AR390E, which goes for $3,150.Like all the other Windows models available at Circuit City, the processor is a 2GHz Core 2 Duo, slower than the one in the MacBook Pro. On the other hand, the Vaio comes through with 1,920-by-1,200-pixel screen resolution, a 5,400 rpm 240GB hard drive, and a whopping 527MB of video memory. Like the D ell, though, at 8. 4 lb. , the Vaio makes the 6. 8 lb. MacBook Pro look like a lightweight. Moving downscale a little, both Hewlett-Packard and Toshiba have models in the $2,000 range that approximate the MacBook Pro's equipment.The HP Pavilion DV9260US comes with the Intel Core 2 Duo 2-GHz processor, a 240GB 5,400 rpm drive, Windows Vista Ultimate, and a 17-in. screen whose maximum resolution is only 1,440 by 900 pixels (a major drawback). Circuit City's price is $2,000. Bottom line: Assuming that you want a high-end notebook PC designed to work, play, and be your everyday machine with style, the MacBook Pro is a surprisingly good value. The models that I compared it with, the Sony and the Dell, had some extras here and there, but they were also more expensive.The key to the perception that Macs are more expensive is that Apple offers very few in-between models. A graph showing the market capitalization between ‘Apple’ and ‘Microsoft’ conducted by (T3 2009 ) shows that in the year 2000, Microsoft had a huge upper hand over Apple, and did so for a long period. It wasn’t until March 2005 that Apple started to rise and actually started to have a competing chance. Research Methodology Research Design The research paper design conducted is a descriptive one because it involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way.This method is used to obtain a general overview of the subject, and answers who, what, and why of the study. It is also useful where it is not possible to test and measure the large number of samples needed for more quantitative types of experimentation. They are often used by market researchers to judge the habits of customers, or by companies wishing to judge the morale of staff. The results from a descriptive research can in no way be used as a definite answer or to disapprove a hypothesis but, if the limitations are understood, they can still be a useful tool in many area s of scientific research. JA Maxwell – 2005) Research Approach As the research design is descriptive, the research approach would be a ‘qualitative’ one. Qualitative research is a method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts. (Creswell 2003) A qualitative study indicates that no statistical tools will be applied within the research. Methods such as surveys, questionnaires and interviews can be done when dealing with a qualitative research approach. Research InstrumentResearchers have decided to carry out ‘interviews’ to obtain the responses they need for study. (See Appendix 1 for interview questions) A set of questions will be asked to the interviewee, and their answers will be dealt accordingly. The interview questions will be structured; as there are specific questions the researchers will ask the respondents. Qualitative nature of stud y contains independent variables along with various assumptions. Sampling Design A ‘non-probability’ sampling technique will be used in this study. This method of sampling is non-random and subjective.Each respondent does not have a known nonzero chance of being included. A ‘convenience’ sampling method will be applied. The researchers will choose freely those respondents who are the most convenient. The researchers will interview people from I. T departments in areas of Telecommunication Centers (mainly concentrating on consumers). Data Analysis Being a qualitative study, descriptive statistics would be used to produce data and evaluate results. The data that is generated, from the interview (See Appendix 1 for interview questions) technique will be analyzed qualitatively.This would be followed by physically reading the miscellaneous number of responses and then concluding to which company people prefer. A little less than a year ago, Wall Street reached a Microsoft vs. Apple milestone: for the first time, Apple’s corporate value surpassed Microsoft’s. And Apple’s market cap (the total value of all of its shares) topped Microsoft’s even though the latter company had more revenue and double the profit margins. Clearly, Wall Street was looking at growth potential, not current income statements and balance sheets, in anointing Apple the more compelling buy.What has happened since? With Apple due to report its latest quarterly earnings  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Microsoft reports its numbers next week – we look at some recent numbers, as well as data over time. Market cap While total values for Microsoft and Apple were close last spring, that’s no longer the case. Since May 26, 2011, when Apple first inched ahead of Microsoft, Apple’s market capitalization has risen from US$223 billion to more than US$306 billion (as of April 14). Microsoft’s, meanwhile, has slipped from US$219 billion to US$212 b illion. Sharon Machlis) Bottom line: Wall Street currently thinks more highly of Apple’s growth potential and overall prospects than it does of Microsoft’s. Investors were right last year, but only time can tell whether that outlook is still justified, given the company’s high stock price. Market share Beyond Wall Street, how do the companies stack up in the battle for tech users? Microsoft maintained an overwhelming lead in the desktop operating system business, keeping a roughly 92 percent share of the market from 2005 to 2009 (the last figures available from IDC).Mac OS X’s share has varied between just 3. 5 percent and 4. 0 percent. Apple took a significant lead in the Smartphone race, capturing 15. 7 percent of the worldwide market last year, compared with just 4. 2 percent for Microsoft. However, both Gartner and IDC predict Microsoft’s Windows Phone will beat out Apple’s iOS for mobile market share by 2015, with Gartner expecting a 19 . 5 percent share for Microsoft and 17. 2 percent for Apple. In addition, Apple had a commanding 87. 4 percent share of the worldwide tablet market last year, according to IDC.Gartner predicts Apple will keep a 69 percent share this year and will still have 47 percent by 2015. Windows doesn’t show up in that forecast. Bottom line: In one high-growth area, smartphones, several influential analysts believe Microsoft will eventually come out on top. In another, tablets, it’s getting crushed. However, Microsoft has maintained its enormous lead on the desktop. Investment value over time If you invested US$1,000 in each company’s stock on Jan. 3, 2000, what would you have ended up with in April 2011?Accounting for stock splits and, in Microsoft’s case, dividends, but excluding taxes and broker’s fees, you would have US$2,072 from Microsoft stock and US$13,294 from Apple stock. And if you had invested US$1,000 in each company on May 26 last year, your App le stock would have been worth US$1,427 in mid-April, compared with US$1,033 for your Microsoft stock. Bottom line: Apple has been by far the superior investment over the past decade. Revenue Microsoft’s fiscal year 2006 revenue was more than double Apple’s FY ’06 revenue: US$44. 3 billion to US$19. 3 billion. What has happened since?Apple’s revenues have more than tripled, while Microsoft’s have grown by less than 50 percent. Bottom line: Apple’s fiscal year 2010 revenue edged Microsoft’s, US$65. 2 billion to US$62. 5 billion. (Note: Microsoft’s fiscal year is July through June, and Apple’s is October through September. ) Profits Microsoft’s profits were six times larger than Apple’s in their respective 2006 fiscal years. Apple’s net income has subsequently grown sevenfold, while Microsoft’s has increased roughly 50 percent. (Sharon Machlis) Bottom line: While Microsoft still generates more p rofits than Apple, the gap has narrowed significantly.If current trends continued – a big if – Apple would likely top Microsoft’s profits in a couple of years. Number of employees Microsoft still employs substantially more people than Apple does, although the size of Microsoft’s workforce has dropped a bit, from 93,000 in 2009 to 89,000 in 2010. Apple’s reported headcount has been rising, with a significant jump from 34,300 in 2009 to 46,600 in 2010. Bottom line: Apple’s revenue per employee at the end of its 2010 fiscal year was substantially higher than Microsoft’s: US$1. 4 million versus US$702,000.Likewise, Apple’s profits per employee were US$300,429, compared with US$211,236 for Microsoft. So how do they stack up overall? Opinions aside, Apple has impressed investors much more than Microsoft has, despite the latter’s considerably larger size and continued dominance on the desktop. Apple’s recent ability to c reate category-changing (or category-creating) devices such as the iPhone and the iPad –as it did with the iPod several years earlier – appears to carry much more weight than Microsoft’s assured, steady income stream from a maturing market.However, experts do expect Microsoft to overtake Apple in the Smartphone market. Bottom line: Those of us who thought a year ago that Apple might be overvalued have been proven wrong †¦ so far. Conclusion Which Company do people prefer? After all the analysis it can be understood from this study that a lot of reason and authentic facts impact on specific company and buyer’s decision. There is always a continuous rivalry between the two companies, but the most important thing to consider before buying a computer is the purpose it will serve.Microsoft primarily makes its profits from business to business, which mainly consists of selling licenses to its operating system to computer manufacturers and office suites for enterprises. On the other hand, Apple is primarily a consumer company, and makes most of its profit selling hardware, like its iPod music players and Mac computers. This makes the target of Apple’s site much clearer — marketing, selling and providing support for its products to consumers. (Andy M. Zaky) If you’re looking at usability alone, Apple comes out ahead.They have a better designed homepage that offers less choice, which means the user needs to think less. They have consistent navigation across all of their pages. They use a lot of white space and sub-headings to make everything more readable, yet they keep things simple by not overusing too many different text treatments. The Apple site is generally more user friendly and offers a much better experience to consumers who use it to check out Apple’s latest products. Having said this, the Apple website is much smaller in scale than Microsoft’s site.Unlike Apple, Microsoft hosts many differen t sites and sections under the Microsoft. com brand, creating a whole ecosystem of sub-sites. Each site is packed with information and the live powered search that Microsoft offers tends to yield good results. The biggest problem for Microsoft is consistency. (Dmitry Fadeyev). In a nutshell, both companies need some area to improve to fit for customer wants, to give customers master product and to provide consistency in telecommunication originations. BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITES Suhail M (2009)-Apple vs Pc: What is better?Available: http://ezinearticles. com/? Apple-Vs-PC—What-is-Better? &id=4337642 visited: 25th September 2011 Admin (2010)-Why Do People Like Apple Computers So Much? Available: http://www. asiaosc. org/why-do-people-like-apple-computers-so-much. html visited: 3rd october 2012 Dmitry Fadeyev (2009)-Apple vs. Microsoft: A website usability study. Available: http://www. webdesignerdepot. com/2009/05/apple-vs-microsoft-a-website-usability-study/ visited: 28th October 2 012 Andy M. Zaky (2010)- Apple closes in on Microsoft revenue race. Available: http://tech. fortune. cnn. om/2010/07/19/apple-closes-in-on-microsoft-in-revenue-race/ visited: 28th October 2012 Sharon Machils (2011)- Analysis: Apple versus Microsoft – by the numbers. Available: http://www. macworld. com. au/blogs/analysis-apple-versus-microsoft-by-the-numbers-28800/ visited: 29th November 2012 Journals Thurrott P. (2005) – Microsoft: The inside Story (Penton Media) Furgason N. (2009) (Feb) – T3: Tomorows Technology Today (issue 48) ISSN-1364-2640 MSJ – Microsoft System Journal Publisher: Microsoft (1986) Books Allan Roy A. (2001) A History of The Personnel Computer Allan Publishing ISBN 0968910807 Iceboat, Daniel, and Susan L.Knepper, (1991) The Making of Microsoft: How Bill Gates and His Team Created the World's Most Successful Software Company, Rocklin, Calif. : Prima Publishing, p. 304 Price R. (1987). So Far: The First Ten Years of a Vision. Apple Comp uter. ISBN-  978-1-55693-974-7. Creswell J. W. (2003) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. APPENDIX-1 Interview Questions The following questions will be asked by the interviewer to the respondent, which will aid study in finding out which of two companies’ most people prefer. Which company do you prefer, Microsoft or Apple? * Why do you prefer the company you have chosen? * What are the advantages and disadvantages of the company you have selected? * In your opinion, which company has a greater market share? * Which product do you widely use in your environment? * Have you ever faced major barriers in your company? Explain. * Who are your major competitors? * What advice would you give to weaker companies? How can they improve in order to attract customers, regain lost customers and retain present customers? APPENDIX 2(A) APPENDIX 2(B) APPENDIX 2(C)

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Essay on Fast Food Industry - 968 Words

The world has become so fast paced that everything is rushed. Almost every aspect of life has become industrialized. Food and the way it is prepared is no exception to this world that always appears to be in fast forward. The fast food industry has revolutionized how and what people eat. The public has begun to consume more fast food and the problem is that people do not know what they are eating. If the concept of a nutritious meal is thrown out the window for the convenience of fast food then the health risks will outnumber any pros in favor of that cheeseburger. A new time period requires new methods to keep up with the demand. The way food is produced today has basically been reinvented and is made more for convenience than ever†¦show more content†¦The question is, why take in so many bad calories and the answer is because it is easier. There has been in an increase in fast food establishments in the last two decades and the percentage of obesity has gone up as well (Sc hlosser). Obesity or weight gain occurs when the body has taken more calories than it can release and many fast food meals just have too many calories for any one person to excerpt. (Schlosser). Almost 300,000 people die every year from being obese and even though fast food is not the only reason for obesity it does contribute to the epidemic (Schlosser). â€Å"The American population study Cardia suggests that frequent fast-food consumption is positively associated with weight gain and risk of insulin resistance† (Stender). The calories are also accompanied by high fat content, sugar and lots of salt. Way too much of a â€Å"good† thing can be very harmful. â€Å"An article published in the medical journal Pediatrics warns that high sugar consumption can lead to obesity and an increase in Type 2 diabetes in both adults and children† (Haris). The American Heart Association advices that the intake of fat should be very limited therefore high intakes of fast food can prove to be damaging to one’s health. Salt intake is also very important because the body needs certain amounts, but high amounts can lead to high blood pressure and other potentially harmful things (TopShow MoreRelatedFast Food And The Food Industry1642 Words   |  7 PagesThe majority of Americans enjoy fast food like bees enjoy their honey. Fast food is hard not to love due to families experiencing fast paced days, parents who work more than 20 hours a week, and having children with picky appetites can be rough. For most American families, it can be a challenge to not consider eating fast food more than once a week. The fast food industry has grown tremendously through the years. The one restaurant that is known all over the world for their golden arches and theirRead MoreFast Food Industry1506 Words   |  7 PagesTable of Contents: 1) Executive Summary †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦P.2 2) Industry Structure Analysis †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦P.2 3) Five Force Model †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.P.3 4) Comparative industry structure analyses †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.P.5 5) Critical Success Factors Now ...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦P.5 6) Critical Success Factors in Future...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.P.7 7) Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦P.8 6) Appendix †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..P.9 Executive Summary: Hong Kong is a city in which efficiency and speed areRead MoreThe Fast Food Industry Essay2085 Words   |  9 Pagesyears old, I got my first job at the most wonderful fast food restaurant ever, Cookout. This was not an ideal job for a 16-year-old. Most teens dream of their first job being in their favorite clothing store, or maybe even their favorite grocery store. I was that teen, but where I am from there are very limited options for 16 year olds so I had to just settle for a fast food restaurant. We have all heard these typical assumptions about fast food employees, they are all uneducated, they work too hardRead MoreFast Food And The Food Industry979 Words   |  4 Pagesyou see one of the fifty thousand fast food chains in the United States alone (Ransohoff). It might be easy to resist the cheap and easy deliciousness of a McDonald’s cheeseburger for a while, but then you have a long day and cooking seems too tedious for the amount of energy you actually have. Or you a re out with friends and the only food options are fast food. That is okay! Today, healthier food options are more accessible in and out of the fast food industry. In today’s world of technology andRead MoreFast Fashion On Fast Food Industry2279 Words   |  10 PagesSlow Fashion Fast fashion is a force that needs constant change from retailers; new garments and new trends cycle out as fast as a bi-weekly basis, putting pressure on the industry to sell fast and cheap to the consumer. However, with the news publishing more articles about the working conditions in factories, comparable to the Rana Plaza disaster in Bangladesh, and the run-off pollution these factories produce, the consumer is demanding more transparency in the supply chain. The introduction toRead MoreThe Fast Food Industry1246 Words   |  5 Pageschanged their spending habits in particular food. This has lead fast food joints to profits, proving that there is an upside to our low economy Todays industry faces high real-estate prices and highway strips teeming with fast-fooleries, there is now one restaurant for every 2,700 Americans, compared with one for every 7,000 in the late 1970s (Clark). Chains have been branching out into sports arenas, airports, hospitals, colleges, turnpike stops, m all food courts, kiosks, airline in-flight meal servicesRead MoreFast Food And The Kingdom Of The Fast Foods Industry1532 Words   |  7 Pagesof the fast food industry. Since White Castle, which was known as the first fast food chain in the United States, was established by Walter Anderson and Edgar Waldo â€Å"Billy† Ingram in 1921 (Kieler), other fast food chains also emerged such as McDonalds, Taco bell, Burger King, or Wendy’s after 1941 (Wilson). Among those various fast food chains, especially, McDonalds became the biggest fast food chain not only in the overall America but also all around the world (Wilson). Nowadays, fast food is servingRead MoreThe Effects Of Fast Food On The Food Industry2319 Words   |  10 Pagespresent themselves (What Causes Obesity, 2006). Advertisements in the fast food industry are persuading people to eat their greasy, fat, salty, unhealthy foods (McDonald’s Advertising Themes, 2013). In order for people to live a happy, hea lthy life, they must change their eating habits. However, fast food advertisements are contributing to what is making eating habits so hard to change, with their misleading advertising. Fast food is slowly but surely killing us, yet we hardly notice until it finallyRead MoreThe Fast Food Industry Essays1646 Words   |  7 PagesThe dagger of the people is always twisting and changing the fast food world. Fast food itself has always been changing due to social, economic, and health concerns. To begin I will cover the origins of fast food, followed by a brief discussion about McDonalds as well as Burger King. This will be accompanied by a brief discussion on Taco Bell, with our final subject covering healthier fast food options. The origins of the fast food death machine: The machines gears were forged by the company knownRead MoreMcdonalds And The Fast Food Industry1617 Words   |  7 PagesCompany Overview McDonalds has been the front-runner of the fast food industry ever since it was founded more than 50 years ago. This fast food mogul has provided millions of Americans and people around the globe with their services. However, since the Companies founding in a Chicago suburb to the globally recognized Corporation it is now various problems have begun to slow down the sales and growth of the Organization. As of 2014, McDonalds had 36,528 restaurants in 119 countries. The Companies

Monday, December 30, 2019

Scientific Management - 3842 Words

Federic Taylor s Scientific Management reflects an approach to managing that is no longer appropriate for today’s managers . Critically evaluate this statement with particular reference to an example from workspace with which you are familiar. Guidance: Many management textbooks claim that Taylor s ideas are no longer appropriate, but consider whether an organization can operate without clear rules, hierarchy and division of labor. Many large and successful organizations, such as McDonalds hamburger chain or call centers, appear to use a modern version of scientific management. It would also be a good idea to consider whether these sort of generalizations can be applied in a global manner, or whether they tend to reflect the†¦show more content†¦[3] Using these three reasons Taylor developed the four principles of the scientific management [4]: †¢ Develop a science for each element of a man’s work and replace the â€Å"rule-of-thumb† method. †¢ Scientifically select, train and develop workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks, decide the best way to complete the job and carry out their own training. †¢ Provide Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker s discrete task [5]. †¢ Split the work in the same proportions between the management and workers. Managers will use the scientific methods to plan and organize the work and workers will actually perform the tasks. The productivity under Taylor’s method dramatically increased and costs of the manufactured goods were reduced by 1/10 to 1/20 of the previous manufactured cost. These changes allowed more people to purchase the goods [6]. It looks like the scientific management theory was the perfect solutions to the problems in organizations in the 20th century. But is scientific management appropriate in a modern world? The next section will look at pros and cons of this theory and the use of scientific management in today’s organizations. The appropriateness of Scientific Management for today’s managers Taylor’s functions of management highlighted the importance of carefully practicingShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Scientific Management1633 Words   |  7 PagesThe purpose of this essay is to research, analyse and assess the theory of scientific management, which was revolutionised by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1887 (A.Huczynski, 2010) and to critically evaluate the benefits and pitfalls of his theory. This theory Taylor developed is known as Taylorism and has been used commonly in various structures of organisation. Comparisons shall be drawn to other theories and advancements of this theory, such as Fordism and Toyotism, which was extremely popular inRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management3291 Words   |  14 PagesTHE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (TAYLORISM) STUDENT NAME : SOWMITH VATSAVAI ROLL NO : 120908246 BRANCH : INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGG. E-MAIL ID : SOWMITH.V@GMAIL.COM CONTACT NO : 09740459479 INDEX Sl.no Contents Page No. 1 Fundamentals 2 2 Introduction 5 3 Experimentation 6 4 Principles 9 5 Conclusion 15 6 References 16 â€Æ' 1.Fundamentals of Scientific Management 1.1 Introduction Read MoreScientific Management2246 Words   |  9 PagesSCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMY Scientific management is a theory of management that analysis and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labour productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). He began trying to discover a way for workers to increase their efficiency when he was the forepersonRead MoreScientific Management2016 Words   |  9 PagesScientific management (also called Taylorism, the Taylor system, or the Classical Perspective) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflow processes, improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).[1] Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replacedRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management1337 Words   |  6 Pagescentury ago, Frederick Winslow Taylor’s renowned work The Principles of Scientific Management set forth a theory that to this day is subjected to a similar degree of critique and debate to that in the early 20th century. While Taylor’s ideas were evidently influenced by the works of earlier researchers, it is he who is credited as the â€Å"father† of the scientific management movement (Jeacle, 2004, p. 1164). As such, scientific management itself is synonymous with Taylor to the extent that it is commonlyRead MoreThe Advantages Of Scientific Management Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesIn the early 20th Century, Frederick Winslow Taylor revolutionised work in factories through the development of his new form of management; Scientific management. It is a method of worker management that involves scientifically finding the best way to divide labour and to do each ind ividual job as easily as possible, and finding the best person for that job. It is done through removing the control of production from the workers and putting it in the hands of the managers, who oversee the processRead MorePrinciples of Scientific Management1149 Words   |  5 PagesScientific Management is a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries. Taylor was an American mechanical engineer and a management consultant in his later years. He is often calledRead MoreThe Scientific Management of Taylor1493 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Taylor used valuable knowledge into work practice, as the appearance of scientific management, the productivity of all the developed countries increased nearly 50 times (Zuo, 2007). In the meanwhile, whether the scientific management is suitable for modern age has sparked much debate. Some people assert that scientific have some limitations. Therefore, this essay tends to analyze several parts of scientific management, some problems caused by it and whether it is suitable to the modern enterprisesRead MoreThe Principles Of Scientific Management2994 Words   |  12 PagesIntroduction Good management can be defined as the optimal use of available resources to increase an organisation s efficiency and effectiveness in meeting its objectives (Garg, 2013). Scientific management has been the dominant model for many years, but its usefulness for meeting modern organisational challenges may be limited. This paper examines the principles of scientific management, the degree to which it is applied in contemporary organisations, its utility for addressing modern challengesRead MoreThe Emergence Of Scientific Management1300 Words   |  6 PagesThe emergence of scientific management Frederick W. Taylor is called the father of scientific management who is world famous through his book named â€Å"The Principles of Scientific Management†. â€Å"The Principles of Scientific Management† was first published in the early 20th century. Through his work, Frederick W. Taylor described that the process of scientific management can increase total worker organizational efficiency. The theory of scientific management was not invented by one day. It took many

Saturday, December 21, 2019

William Shakespeare s Much Ado About Nothing - 1608 Words

In Shakespeare s play, Much Ado about Nothing, many contrasting views on the subject of love are dramatised in the relationships presented, particularly those of Benedick and Beatrice, and Claudio and Hero. These views help to shape the play into a comedy, due to the severe differences. Benedick s slightly misogynistic views of love at the start of the play contrast heavily with his views by the end, as they change so drastically. He claims, in Act 1 Scene 1, that he is loved by all ladies, yet he loves none, suggesting that he is quite frivolous in terms of loving, further supported by his claims of being a professional tyrant to their sex. Women love him nevertheless, but he does not reciprocate the feelings, as he deems women†¦show more content†¦Benedick states that her love must be requited and he will be horribly in love with her. This sudden change contrasts in his earlier, relationship with Beatrice in Act 2 Scene 1, where he ridicules and mocks her harshly, showing no signs of affection. His speech also contrasts with his earlier views on marriage, as he states that he did not think I would live till I was married, hinting at the fact that his views are now swaying. In Act 5 Scene 4, Benedick asks the friar to aid in his marriage confession, only t o be met with mockery from Claudio, who states they will tip his horns with gold, further relating to the cuckold motif and mocking the fact that he has changed his ways considerably. Beatrice, however, occupies a similar view on love as Benedick, as she was previously a misandrist. In Act 2 Scene 1, she states that she will die a virgin, evading her fate of leading apes into hell when she dies, an expression describing the fate of unmarried women, and instead will sit where the bachelors sit up in heaven. This leads into why she does not take interest in men, as she thinks that they have no substance to them apart from earth, comparing them to dirt to heighten her bitterness towards the sex. She also compares men to a piece of valiant dust and a clod of wayward marl, feeding the fact that she compares men to dirt and other earthly, useless substances. Despite Beatrice s apparent bitterness towards males in general, it could be interpreted

Friday, December 13, 2019

Sacred Hoops Free Essays

Sacred Hoops A. Bibliography: Jackson P. (1995). We will write a custom essay sample on Sacred Hoops or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sacred Hoops. 1st ed. New York, NY: Hyperion. B. Summary: Phil Jackson’s book, Sacred Hoops is him telling a story about his spiritual basketball journey to becoming one of the greatest NBA coaches of all time. It starts out with him coaching a season of the Bulls, then it flashes back to his high school life and him winning the state championship for Williston High School. After that he goes from an all American in college to a player at the New York Knicks, and the New Jersey Nets. After realizing playing pro ball wasn’t his thing, he turned to Zen Buddhism. From this Zen Buddhism he found himself, and found better ways to do things. He got asked to help coach the Nets as an assistant for a while. Phil also coached many minor league teams before becoming the assistant, and head coach of the Chicago Bulls where his career took off from there. C. Essay: The book: Sacred Hoops is about Phil Jackson and his story about the journey he took all the way from a little High School team, to coaching the Chicago Bulls where he won many National Championships. Sacred Hoops has many different ways that it relates to psychology. It relates to psychology when Phil kinda loses his way in life, and turns to Zen, How cognitive thinking can affect basketball playing, and how sports can deeply affect players emotions. Sacred Hoops relates to psychology in many ways, one of the first is that Phil kind of turned his life around with A religion called Zen Buddhism. Zen relates to psychology because it is a religion that is all about finding your inner self, and it helps you think in different, better ways. After Phil was kind of in a â€Å"drought† in his professional basketball career, he couldn’t think of anywhere else to go but to Zen. This religion taught him that his thoughts had many forms. This mean, say he had the ball he would have different thought like angered thoughts, thoughts to be a ball hog or not, or even thoughts to self praise him. These helped him all the time, and especially during coaching so he had different thoughts and could always handle a situation in the way. Zen also taught Phil that he needs to trust the moment. Like he says in the book â€Å"it’s not uncommon for basketball players, especially young ones, to expend a great deal of energy trying to be someone they’re not. † (Jackson, 51) this is saying players are trying to be someone better than who they are, and they get caught up in the game and just fail from there. He found out that if you just trust the moment, and trust yourself, you will do your best and succeed easier. This book also relates to psychology by showing how cognitive thinking can affect basketball playing. Basketball players can be greatly affected psychologically by all of their different surroundings, the things going on, and how games can affect them. Phil shows that many things affect how players may play, and media is one of the big factors. Media can get into a players head so easily and then they can play like absolute crap just because one thing can be blown out of proportion. Even coaches can be affected by their surroundings. In one of Phil’s games, there were 7 seconds left and they had the ball on a timeout. Phil was peer pressured into making one of the not so skilled shooters to take the shot, when their best shooter should of taken the shot, and they lost the game because of his decision. Some players just may play bad if they have an amazing player on the team like Michael Jordan. In most of the games, a lot of the players would think they wouldn’t have to do anything because Michael was just so good and basically won the games by himself. Well when it came to championship games, these players would make their team lose cause Jordan would get triple teamed and couldn’t score, so they then lose. Lastly players can also be hugely affected by a game win or loss. A win can boost someone up so much, and make them the happiest person alive, where as a loss can psychologically crush you, and tear you apart. Some losses can be worse than others, like game 7 of the finals when Phil lost cause he told his team to just relax a little and hold onto the ball. Because of those they lost, and he was so sad he never got over it, and kept reminiscing about it. Sports can also greatly affect and change people’s lives. Lastly this book shows how sports can greatly affect people’s lives. People can be affected for the greater, worse, or sports help them find abetted place. Some players careers can go so great, per say Michael Jordan, who is one of the greatest basketball players of all time. Basketball affected his life so positively because he was so good, and because of this his life was great. For some people sports can also tear their life apart, say they have a rough year or an injury, this could get to their head and mess up their career. So many athletes are affected by injuries and after they attempt a comeback might never play as good as they did before because they let it get to their heads. There are also people like Phil Jackson that playing professional basketball wasn’t made for him, so once he learned that he figured out that his thing was coaching, and he became one of the greatest coaches ever because of how much the sport of basketball impacted his life. These are some of the many different reasons that Sacred Hoops can relate to psychology, and a showing of some of his story to becoming one of the greatest coaches ever. This book is easily one of my favorite books, because it is about sports, and it teaches you so many different things. I would recommend this book to anyone and everyone even if you don’t like sports. How to cite Sacred Hoops, Essay examples Sacred Hoops Free Essays Phillip Douglas Jackson was born on September 17, 1945 in Deer Lodge, Montana. Jackson was known as the best NBA head coach of all time, leading the Chicago Bulls to six titles and the Los Angeles Lakers to three. Before Phil became known as a victorious head coach, he was an ordinary athlete. We will write a custom essay sample on Sacred Hoops or any similar topic only for you Order Now Phil Jackson played basketball, football, and baseball in high school and was recruited to North Dakota University to play basketball after graduation. While attending the college, Phil helped his team win third-and fourth-place finishes in the NCAA Division II championships. Jackson was known as the â€Å"Zen Master† to the game of basketball. In 1967, Phil Jackson was drafted in the second round by the New York Knicks, where he played as a favorite substitute for years. Phil grew older and realized he wanted to stay into the game by wasn’t going to play. Jackson began his coaching career in the lower leagues, receiving his big break in 1987 when he was hired as an assistant coach for the Chicago Bulls. Phil Jackson was promoted to head coach in 1989 and helmed the team until 1998. Despite the success, tension grew between Phil Jackson and the Bulls general manager Jerry Krause. After winning the title in 1999 he took a year off. Previously after 1999, Phil decided to take his coaching skills and intelligence to Los Angeles California, coaching the Lakers. Phil Jackson had endless success winning three championships straight with the Lakers, beating the New Jersey Nets, Indiana Pacers, and also the Philadelphia Seventy Sixers. Tension grew between two star players on the team; consequently, Jackson decided to leave. After the Lakers had a disappointing season 2004-2005, Phil was rehired as a head coach. 2007 Phil Jackson was known to be the highest paid coach in the NBA. Through all of his magnificent achievements, Phil Jackson managed to write a book called â€Å"Sacred Hoops. † In the book Sacred Hoops, Phil talks a lot about motivation, teamwork; moreover, learning how to keep calm in tough situations. Phil Jackson states, â€Å"Not only is there more to life than basketball, there’s a lot more to basketball than basketball. Jackson offers in the book an unusual mixture of new age advice and basketball knowledge, a sort of Zen and art of pro hoops. Jackson talks a lot about Zen metaphors, his message can be boiled down to two simple precepts: â€Å"The team is more important than one player or coach; furthermore, you have to live in the moment, on and off the court. † Phil explains succinctly how the Zen Buddhist concern with cleaning the mind of impurities to focus on immediate sensation can be put to use in a range of situations. Phil decided to write this book mainly for people who cannot work through difficult situations, â€Å"it’s almost a guideline to help you throughout your days† Jackson states. Phil Jackson was known to be one of the greatest coaches of all times, creating a dynasty with the Los Angeles Lakers. Phil Jackson was able to succeed by his meditated thoughts and ways to conquer the game. Jackson won eleven rings throughout his years of playing basketball and coaching the game of basketball. Phil will also be known as the â€Å"Zen Master† of basketball. How to cite Sacred Hoops, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Progressive Movement In America Essay Example For Students

Progressive Movement In America Essay There was a great need for the progressives during the early 1900s. In 1900 Americas population was around 76 million, and one out of every seven of those 76 million was foreign. By 1915 there were 13 million more immigrants. If that wasnt enough of a drastic change in Americas culture, there was another huge change taking place. America was switching from small personal businesses, to the big business type of economy. Newer and bigger businesses meant different working conditions, different working classes as well as economic classes, and completely new jobs that hadnt even existed before. Often my parents and I disagree on current events, movies, music, etc. Sometimes I feel like they are both against change. If they see that things arent just as they were before, like during the time when they were my age, they see things as bad or wrong. On the other hand, I feel like change is necessary sometimes, and the times of the late 1800s and early 1900s were no exception. In defense of my parents, I dont always see the need for total changes. After all, as the old saying goes, if it isnt broke dont fix it. The progressive movement refused to stick with the status quo and instead welcomed change. However progressives also recognized that some things worked fairly well, like the general form of American government. So they felt a complete change was not necessary, but that some things could use a little work, and that is how progressives formed their basic goals. The progressive movement worked towards a more honest and active government at all levels so that the public interests might be better protected. During the late 19th century and early 1900s political machines held most of the political power at the state and local levels. These political machines were often corrupt and gained their power not by running good campaigns about relevant issues, but instead through providing favors for, and appealing to, those in need like immigrants. Most involved in the machines were more interested in making money than relevant political issues. The Federal government was itself fairly inactive, passing little or no important legislation and having usually passive election campaigns that addressed few issues. When the entire country is experiencing the effects of the dramatic changes I mentioned earlier, I feel disturbed that the government acted so passively. Progressives did Americans good by working for a stronger governments. Working conditions was also a point of focus for the progressive movement. With all the new jobs created by industrialization, new working conditions were also created. I suppose that some Americans worked in nicer places, got paid well, and also worked decent hours. However, it was too common that workers were overworked and underpaid. So progressives worked for better wages and more tolerable work conditions. Progressives also believed in sociological jurisprudence, or dealing with issues by viewing them from a sociological standpoint. When trying to decide what needed to be changed and fixed, the progressive movement was concerned with effects the changes would have on the entire society. Often when new standards or legislature was being set up, the composers were only concerned with how it would affect one specific group such as the wealthy upper class, the poor lower class, or immigrants. That system could hardly be effective during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Progressives realized that industrialization, immigration, and even expansion towards the West were changes that affected everyone, not just one particular group of people. The theory Social Darwinism was rejected by the progressive movement, and it is something I personally reject too. Social Darwinism was the belief that if a person failed, it was of some fault of their own and not of their conditions or surrounding environment. I just dont feel that way about personal failures. Preaks vs. administrators Essay Reasonably, I feel that if a person fails because they dont or wont try then their failure is a fault of themselves. However I also realize that if a person is laid off because a company wants to make cutbacks, or if there is an explosion at work and it injures workers so badly they can no longer work, I cannot see these as failures caused by their .

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Why the philosophy of King is more effective in fighting racism than Malcolms

One cannot speak about racism in America and fail to mention the two great legendary persons like Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. These are the famous and the most eloquent proponents of the Afro-Americans’ rights in the history of war against racism in the USA.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Why the philosophy of King is more effective in fighting racism than Malcolm’s? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The freedom and cultural heritage that African Americans enjoy today are actually the result of the contributions of these two great persons. Their philosophical approaches might have been different and sometimes viewed as contradicting, but their ultimate intention was to liberate the blacks from the whites. King’s approach was a peaceful one whereby his belief was founded on his philosophy that whites and blacks can live harmoniously with one another. On the other hand, Malcolmâ€℠¢s approach was propelled by a philosophical idea that whites are inherently evil, and self-defense is the only weapon to liberate the African Americans, although, he is believed to have changed this position thereafter (Howard-Pitney 6). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the philosophies of King and Malcolm evolved over time, and why the King’s approach is viewed to be more effective. Both King and Malcolm are distinguished leaders whose philosophical ideas were considerably influenced by their childhood environment. Their background actually explains the source of their dissimilarities as portrayed in their pursuit of the freedom for African Americans from the Caucasians. On the one hand, King was brought up in a Christian family that embraced the love of all children irrespectively of the skin color (Howard-Pitney 4). King received a quality education, and because of his intelligence he earned his doctorate at a tender age. It is after King’ s venture into Philosophical studies that his views on freedom and nature of man began to take a new direction. His family roots contributed greatly to the formation of his character, including, in particular, such traits like calmness, kindness, and courage to liberate his fellow people. All these traits are well portrayed in his revolutionary speeches that he gave all around America with intention of uniting both races. Conversely, Malcolm was born in a ‘chaotic’ family, whereby his parents did not live in a harmony. Malcolm struggled so much with bitter feelings first because of the ill treatment the Afro-Americans received from the Caucasians, and secondly, because of the witness of his mother being assaulted by his father. After his father’s death, Malcolm together with his numerous siblings and their widowed mother lived in deplorable conditions, where even daily meals and education were almost impossible things (Howard-Pitney 6). The year 1939 was tumultuo us not only for Malcolm but his family as well since this is the year his mother suffered a mental breakdown. Now, it was imperative that Malcolm and his siblings could not provide for their needs. A white family took care of Malcolm until he was in the eighth grade at the very point that he dropped out of school. After that, Malcolm started participating in the street crime so as to provide food for him. These crimes finally led him to jail where he met a fellow Muslim inmate who influenced him greatly.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The above disparity in the backgrounds of King and Malcolm explains the root cause and the power behind their philosophical thoughts that shaped their lives thereafter. King who was born in a peaceful environment carried out a peaceful non-violent activity by his revolutionary speeches and philosophical arguments. The atmosphere that he enjoyed in his family formed in him positive attitude towards his struggle for freedom. Referring to his peaceful family, King once said, â€Å"I have never experienced the feeling of not having the basic necessities of life† (Howard-Pitney 36). In many cases, King encouraged his followers not to engage in any destructive activity but create an environment where peace and harmony were at home among the whites and the enslaved blacks. The idea of harmony and respect of all human beings is a result of his Christian foundation as well as the philosophy of Gandhi that he encountered later on in his life. King says that he became a minister not because he felt so qualified or as a result of any extraordinary experience but it was to answer a call that he felt deep within him to render his service to humanity regardless of color or race (Howard-Pitney 57). It is this positive attitude of encouragement that created an atmosphere in which even the Caucasians seemed to like his ideas. This is the un derlying belief that shaped not only his life but his philosophy as well. King’s non-violent movement soon won the hearts of many people both black and white. Many people loved listening to his eloquence, a desire that compelled them to follow him wherever he was addressing the people. In the process of listening to him, many come to appreciate his ideas. This explains the reason why King was more effective than his contemporary Malcolm. On many occasions as King traversed America selling his bid of peace, respect of all, and the desire to obtain equality among blacks and whites, he was heard to encourage especially the youths to embark on handiwork, to do anything that did not compromise their moral principles as they engaged themselves in a mature leadership. Consequently, King changed the minds of numerous individuals by encouraging them to work hard so as to alleviate their lives. Thus, it is believed that African Americans are so hard-working till the present day because King instilled in them the culture of handiwork. He wanted them to know, that by hard work they would win respect from the whites. Similarly, the philosophy of Malcolm finds its shape from the melancholies encountered during his childhood. The experiences coined by the burning of their only home, an incident that led to the death of his father, the trauma caused by seeing his mother go throw a mental breakdown left him in a state of desolation, hatred, and vengeance.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Why the philosophy of King is more effective in fighting racism than Malcolm’s? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the tread that his philosophy followed. Malcolm hated the whites to an extent that he called them devils (Howard-Pitney 55). Malcolm was propelled by bitterness to fight for freedom by use of violence. His philosophy was based on the belief that it is only by self-defense against the whiteâ €™s oppression together with the separation of the two races that was going to liberate the blacks. His revolutionary speeches provoked rivalry between the blacks and whites. To realize how bitter Malcolm was, one can think over his saying: â€Å"White America must now pay for her sins†¦ White America is doomed† (Howard-Pitney 102). This portrays Malcolm as a man already prepared to take responsibility for the outcome of his actions, even if this meant shedding his own blood as long as he fought for the rights of the African Americans. However, when Malcolm broke his relationship with the Islamic movement after the visit to Mecca, his philosophy changed and he began to advocate unity among both races. He began to mend his former reputation in which he had called for violence, hatred, and ravage. He encourages the blacks to have self-respect and be proud of their heritage. After a critical analysis of the two great activists’ philosophies, we are now in a posit ion to establish who had more effective ideas. This also enables us to judge the sincerity of their motives as well as the source of zeal and strong will that is found in both. As presented above, Malcolm is portrayed as a man who has faced a lot of difficulties in life. His childhood predicaments clearly give directions of his future activities and thoughts. Malcolm’s bitterness and desire for revenge can be clearly viewed in his revolutionary speeches. Therefore, we can say that his motives were not purely to liberate blacks but a desire to revenge as well. King, on the other hand, is a calm person who has nothing to revenge for but a desire to go against anger and share love to all human beings since they shared the same nature. He believed that nothing good could be achieved by revolt characterized by violence and hatred between the two races, but instead by mutual respect and love. His approach is partially welcomed by both races although some Caucasians considered him a s an enemy. Works Cited Howard-Pitney, David. Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and the Civil Rights Struggle of the 1950s and 1960s: A Brief History with Documents, Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004. Print.Advertising Looking for essay on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This essay on Why the philosophy of King is more effective in fighting racism than Malcolm’s? was written and submitted by user Ezequiel Colon to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.